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Document Type: Prentice Hall
Author: John G. Poakis and Masoud Salehi
Book: Communicating Systems Engineering
Copyright: 2002
ISBN: 0-13-061793-8
NI Supported: No
Publish Date: Sep 6, 2006


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Introduction and History of Communications Systems

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Overview

This tutorial is part of the National Instruments Signal Generator Tutorial series. Each tutorial in this series, will teach you a specific topic of common measurement applications, by explaining the theory and giving practical examples. This tutorial covers the history of communication systems. For additional signal generator concepts, refer to the Signal Generator Fundamentals main page.

Introduction to Communication Systems

Every day, in our work and in our leisure time, we come in contact with and use a variety of modern communication systems and communication media, the most common being the telephone, radio, television, and the Internet. Through these media we are able to communicate (nearly) instantaneously with people on different continents, transact our daily business, and receive information about various developments and events of note that occur all around the world. Electronic mail and facsimile transmission have made it possible to rapidly communicate written messages across great distances.

Can you imagine a world without telephones, radio, and TV? Yet, when you think about it, most of these modern-day communication systems were invented and developed during the past century. Here, we present a brief historical review of major developments within the last two hundred years that have had a major role in the development of modern communication systems.

Historical Review


Telegraphy and Telephony. One of the earliest inventions of major significance to communications was the invention of the electric battery by Alessandro Volta in 1799. This invention made it possible for Samuel Morse to develop the electric telegraph, which he demonstrated in 1837. The first telegraph line linked Washington with Baltimore and became operational in May 1844. Morse devised the variable-length binary code given in Table 1.1, in which letters of the English alphabet were represented by a sequence of dots and dashes (code words). In this code, more frequently occurring letters are represented by short code words, while letters occurring less frequently are represented by longer code words.



The Morse code was the precursor to the variable-length source-coding methods that are described in Chapter 6. It is remarkable that the earliest form of electrical communications that was developed by Morse, namely telegraphy, was a binary digital communication system in which the letters of the English alphabet were efficiently encoded into corresponding variable-length code words having binary elements. Nearly forty years later, in 1875, Émile Baudot developed a code for telegraphy in which each letter was encoded into fixed-length binary code words of length 5. In the Baudot code the binary code elements have equal length and are designated as mark and space.

An important milestone in telegraphy was the installation of the first transatlantic cable in 1858 that linked the United States and Europe. This cable failed after about four weeks of operation. A second cable was laid a few years later and became operational in July 1866. Telephony came into being with the invention of the telephone in the 1870s. Alexander Graham Bell patented his invention of the telephone in 1876, and in 1877 established the Bell Telephone Company. Early versions of telephone communication systems were relatively simple and provided service over several hundred miles. Significant advances in the quality and range of service during the first two decades of the twentieth century resulted from the invention of the carbon microphone and the induction coil.

The invention of the triode amplifier by Lee De Forest in 1906 made it possible to introduce signal amplification in telephone communication systems and, thus, to allow for telephone signal transmission over great distances. For example, transcontinental telephone transmission became operational in 1915.Two world wars and the Great Depression during the 1930s must have been a deterrent to the establishment of transatlantic telephone service. It was not until 1953, when the first transatlantic cable was laid, that telephone service became available between the United States and Europe.

Automatic switching was another important advance in the development of telephony. The first automatic switch, developed by Strowger in 1897, was an electromechanical step-by-step switch. This type of switch was used for several decades. With the invention of the transistor, electronic (digital) switching became economically feasible. After several years of development at the Bell Telephone Laboratories, a digital switch was placed in service in Illinois in June 1960. During the past thirty years there have been numerous significant advances in telephone communications. Fiber optic cables are rapidly replacing copper wire in the telephone plant and electronic switches have replaced the old electromechanical systems.

Wireless Communications


The development of wireless communications stems from the works of Oersted, Faraday, Gauss, Maxwell, and Hertz. In 1820, Oersted demonstrated that an electric current produces a magnetic field. On August 29, 1831, Michael Faraday showed that an induced current is produced by moving a magnet in the vicinity of a conductor. Thus, he demonstrated that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. With this early work as background, James C. Maxwell in 1864 predicted the existence of electromagnetic radiation and formulated the basic theory that has been in use for over a century. Maxwell's theory was verified experimentally by Hertz in 1887.

In 1894, a sensitive device that could detect radio signals, called the coherer, was used by its inventor Oliver Lodge to demonstrate wireless communication over a distance of 150 yards at Oxford, England. Guglielmo Marconi is credited with the development of wireless telegraphy. Marconi demonstrated the transmission of radio signals at a distance of approximately 2 kilometers in 1895. Two years later, in 1897, he patented a radio telegraph system and established the Wireless Telegraph and Signal Company. On December 12,1901, Marconi received a radio signal at Signal Hill in Newfoundland, which was transmitted from Cornwall, England, a distance of about 1700 miles.

The invention of the vacuum tube was especially instrumental in the development of radio communication systems. The vacuum diode was invented by Fleming in 1904 and the vacuum triode amplifier was invented by De Forest in 1906, as previously indicated. The invention of the triode made radio broadcast possible in the early part of the twentieth century. Amplitude modulation (AM) broadcast was initiated in 1920 when radio station KDKA, Pittsburgh, went on the air. From that date, AM radio broadcasting grew rapidly across the country and around the world. The superheterodyne AM radio receiver, as we know it today, was invented by Edwin Armstrong during World War l. Another significant development in radio communications was the invention of Frequency modulation (FM), also by Armstrong. In 1933, Armstrong built and demonstrated the first FM communication system. However, the use of FM was slow to develop compared with AM broadcast. It was not until the end of World War II that FM broadcast gained in popularity and developed commercially.

The first television system was built in the United States by V. K. Zworykin and demonstrated in 1929. Commercial television broadcasting began in London in 1936 by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Five years later the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) authorized television broadcasting in the United States.

The Past Fifty Years


The growth in communications services over the past fifty years has been phenomenal. The invention of the transistor in 1947 by Walter Brattain, John Bardeen, and William Shockley; the integrated circuit in 1958 by Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce; and the laser by Townes and Schawlow in 1958, have made possible the development of small-size, low-power, low-weight, and high-speed electronic circuits which are used in the construction of satellite communication systems, wideband microwave radio systems, and lightwave communication systems using fiber optic cables. A satellite named Telstar I was launched in 1962 and used to relay TV signals between Europe and the United States. Commercial satellite communication services began in 1965 with the launching of the Early Bird satellite.

Currently, most of the wireline communication systems are being replaced by fiber optic cables which provide extremely high bandwidth and make possible the transmission of a wide variety of information sources, including voice, data, and video. Cellular radio has been developed to provide telephone service to people in automobiles, buses, and trains. High-speed communication networks link computers and a variety of peripheral devices literally around the world.

Today we are witnessing a significant growth in the introduction and use of personal communications services, including voice, data, and video transmission. Satellite and fiber optic networks provide high-speed communication services around the world. Indeed, this is the dawn of the modern telecommunications era. There are several historical treatments in the development of radio and telecommunications covering the past century. We cite the books by McMahon, entitled The Making of a Profession—A Century of Electrical Engineering in America (IEEE Press, 1984); Ryder and Fink, entitled Engineers and Electronics (IEEE Press, 1984); and S. Millman, Ed., entitled A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System—Communications Sciences (1925–1980) (AT & T Bell Laboratories, 1984).

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For the complete list of tutorials, return to the NI Signal Generator Fundamentals Main page.
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