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Glossary (Biomedical Toolkit)

LabVIEW 2013 Biomedical Toolkit Help

Edition Date: June 2013

Part Number: 373696B-01

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A

alpha activities Brain activities that occur when the brain is in wakeful relaxation and the eyes are closed. Alpha activities usually have a frequency of 8 to 13 cycles per second.
ARV average rectified value—A time-windowed average of the absolute or square value of a signal.
atrial tachycardia An atria rhythm disturbance in which the electrical impulse of the heart comes from somewhere in the heart's upper chambers or the atria, rather than from the sino-atrial (SA) node. Atrial tachycardias usually have a heart rate of more than 150 beats per minute (bpm).
atrioventricular block An impairment of the impulse transmission from the atrium to the ventricle.
autoregressive (AR) spectrum The single-sided power spectral density (PSD) of a univariate time series based on the autoregressive modeling, which predicts an output value of a system based on the previous output values.

B

beta activities Brain activities associated with normal waking activities. Beta activities usually have a frequency of 14 to 26 cycles per second.
biosignal A signal that you measure and monitor from biological beings. Biosignals include electrical and non-electrical signals.

C

cuff The part of a sphygmomanometer that wraps around a human arm.

D

delta activities Brain activities associated with deep sleep. Delta activities usually have a frequency of 0.5 to 4 cycles per second.
diastolic pressure The minimum blood pressure in a cycle of heartbeat, which usually occurs near the beginning of the cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood.
DICOM Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine
DICOM tag A tag that stores information related to an attribute of a DICOM file. The tag is identified by a pair of hexadecimal IDs, referring to the group ID and the tag ID, respectively. An ID pair defines the purpose of the tag, such as the tag 0x0010, 0x0010, which is used to store the patient's name.
DICOMDIR A directory structure for DICOM file sets defined in Part 10 of the DICOM Standard. DICOMDIRs are constructed as directory files and contain a four-level hierarchy, pertaining to the patient, study, series, and image, respectively.

E

ECG electrocardiogram—A graph that records the electrical activity of the heart.
EEG electroencephalogram—A record of electrical activity along the scalp.
EMG electromyography—A record of electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles.

F

FFT spectrum Transforms a signal into the components of its frequency spectrum by using the fast Fourier transform (FFT).

H

heart rate The number of heartbeats over a given amount of time, typically in beats per minute (bpm).
HF high frequency—The total spectral power of all the RR intervals between 0.15 Hz and 0.4 Hz, in human heart rate variability analysis.
HRV heart rate variability—The variation of the time interval between heartbeats.
hypercalcemia A condition in which the blood has an abnormally high level of calcium.
hyperkalemia A condition in which the blood has an abnormally high level of potassium.
hypocalcemia A condition in which the blood has an abnormally low level of calcium.
hypokalemia A condition in which the blood has an abnormally low level of potassium.

I

isonormal The normal of an isosurface.
isosurface A 3D surface that represents points with equal values in 3D volume data.

J

junctional tachycardia A fast heart rhythm originating from the atrioventricular junction.

L

LF low frequency—The total spectral power of all the RR intervals between 0.04 Hz and 0.15 Hz, in human heart rate variability analysis.
LF/HF ratio The ratio of low frequency to high frequency in human heart rate variability analysis.

M

MAP mean arterial pressure—The average arterial pressure over a complete cycle of one heartbeat.
MDF median power frequency—The frequency at which a spectrum divides into two parts with equal power.
medical image Images generated for clinical purposes or for medical science.
MNF mean power frequency—The frequency of the mean power in the power spectrum of a signal.

N

NIBP noninvasive blood pressure—Measurement of blood pressure without incision in a body or the insertion of instruments into a patient.
NN50 The number of pairs of successive normal-to-normal intervals that differ by more than 50 milliseconds. The LabVIEW Biomedical Toolkit treats all RR intervals as normal intervals.

P

physiological signal Signals acquired from the human body by using physiological sensors. Common physiological signals include electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyography (EMG), and so on.
pNN50 The proportion of NN50 divided by the total number of normal-to-normal intervals. The Biomedical Toolkit treats all RR intervals as normal intervals.
Poincaré plot A graph that plots each RR interval as a function of its previous RR interval. The Poincaré plot is a common non-linear method for analyzing heart rate variability.
PR interval The interval between the onset of the P wave and the onset of the QRS complex in an electrocardiogram.
pulse wave The pressure wave originating from beats of the heart, which transmits through the arterial system in the human body.

Q

QRS complex The combination of three deflections in an electrocardiogram (ECG), namely the Q wave, R wave, and S wave.
QT interval The interval between the onset of the QRS complex and the offset of the T wave in an electrocardiogram.

R

respiratory rate The number of breaths over a given amount of time, typically in breaths per minute (bpm).
RMSSD Root mean square of the differences between successive RR intervals.
RR Interval The duration between two successive R waves in an electrocardiogram (ECG).
RR triangular index An estimate of the heart rate variability by dividing the number of all RR intervals by the maximum height in the histogram of the RR intervals.

S

SD1 The standard deviation of the points perpendicular to the line of symmetry in a Poincaré plot.
SD2 The standard deviation of the points along the line of symmetry in a Poincaré plot.
slice thickness The physical distance between the centers of each pixel along the z-axis of biomedical 3D volume data.
ST level The amplitude deviation of the J point with respect to the iso-electric level in an electrocardiogram. The J point is the first inflection point after the QRS complex, or potentially the same offset point as the QRS complex.
STFT spectrogram short-time Fourier transform spectrogram—The normalized and squared magnitude of the STFT coefficients produced by the STFT.
systolic pressure The maximum blood pressure in a cycle of heartbeat, which usually occurs near the end of the cycle when the ventricles are contracting.

T

theta activities Brain activities associated with creativity, dreams, and visions. Theta activities usually have a frequency of 4 to 7.5 cycles per second.
TINN Triangular interpolation of normal-to-normal intervals. The Biomedical Toolkit treats all RR intervals as normal intervals.

V

ventricular tachycardia A fast heart rhythm caused by abnormal ventricle activity.
VLF very low frequency—Total spectral power of all the RR intervals between 0 Hz and 0.04 Hz, in human heart rate variability analysis.

W

window center The middle value between the brightest and dullest pixel values or voxel values in an intensity range.
window length The difference between the brightest and dullest pixel values or voxel values in an intensity range.

X

X pixel spacing The physical distance between the centers of each pixel along the x-axis of biomedical 3D volume data.

Y

Y pixel  spacing The physical distance between the centers of each pixel along the y-axis of biomedical 3D volume data.

 

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