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Amplitude Modulation (AM) is a process that varies the amplitude of an RF carrier signal according to the amplitude of the message signal. Amplitude Modulation generates discrete upper and lower sidebands, which are the sum and difference between frequencies of the message signal and the carrier signal.
One of the benefits of the Amplitude Modulation systems is the ease, with which, the baseband message signal can be recovered by demodulation.
The following figure illustrates the modulation of a carrier signal with amplitude AC (Figure a) by a baseband message signal (Figure b). The result is the modulated wave (Figure c).
The transmitted signal shown in Figure c is explained by the following equation:
m(t) is the time-varying modulation
t is the sampling time instant
AC is the amplitude of the carrier signal
fc is the frequency of the carrier signal