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Thermocouples require the following signal conditioning:
Traditionally, the temperature reference was 0 °C. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) thermocouple reference tables are created using this setup. Although an ice bath reference is quite accurate, it is not always practical. A more practical approach is to measure the temperature of the reference junction with a direct-reading temperature sensor, such as a thermistor or an IC sensor, and then subtract the parasitic thermocouple thermoelectric contributions. This process is called cold-junction compensation.