Component Video Signals (CAV)

NI Video Measurement Suite Help

Edition Date: October 2012

Part Number: 373389B-01

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Component Analog Video (or CAV) refers to analog video signals comprised of three separate channels, each carrying a different color component. CAV is the video type used by SDTV, HDTV, and computer graphics, and provides the highest quality transmission of analog video possible, typically used for video production and high-end viewing. There are two types of color component signal:

RGB:

  • R = red, G = green, B = blue,
  • The “natural” format of a color television signal where each color component corresponds to a color beam,
  • Formats are RGsB (sync on green), RGBS (separate sync), and RGBHV (separate H and V sync pulses)

YPbPr (or YUV):

  • Y = luminance (brightness),
  • Pb or U = scaled color difference, B-Y,
  • Pr or V = scaled color difference, R-Y,
  • The main format is YsPbPr (sync on Y),
  • Gain and timing inequalities between the components are less visible than in RGB
  • The bandwidth of the color difference signals can be greatly reduced

Aspect Ratios

All CAV signals have an aspect ratio of 16:9 or 4:3, sampling from left to right, top to bottom, a luminance signal range from 0 mV (reference Black) to 700 mV (reference White), and a chrominance component (Pr, Pb) signal range of ±350 mV. In addition, HDTV signals only have an aspect ratio of only 16:9, an orthogonal pixel sampling lattice, and use a symmetrical tri-level sync of amplitude ±300 mV, with a horizontal (line) datum located at the central zero-crossing of the tri-level sync waveform.

Scanning Modes

CAV signals use three scanning modes defined as:

  1. P      Progressive scan, progressive transport (also referred to as 1:1)
  2. PsF   Progressive scan, segmented frame transport
  3. I       Interlaced scan, interlaced transport (also referred to as 2:1)

TV Standards

There are three categories of CAV signal that define the picture resolution, frame rate, and bandwidth:

  1. SDTV (Standard Definition TV)
  2. EDTV (Enhanced Definition TV)
  3. HDTV (High Definition TV)

The characteristics that distinguish these categories are listed in the following tables for the most common standards (or systems). Progressive systems 480p and 576p (highlighted in the tables in grey) are often grouped in with STDV standards, but in this paper are referred to more appropriately as EDTV to indicate that they lie somewhere between the SDTV and HDTV resolutions and rates.

Common Standards

System Name Samples per Active Line Active Lines per Frame Sample Rate (MHz) Line Rate (kHz) Frame Rate (Hz) Samples per Total Line Total Lines per Frame Luma BW (MHZ)
1280x720p 60 1280 720 74.25 45.00 60.00 1650 750 30
1280x720p 59.94 1280 720 74.18 44.96 59.94 1650 750 30
1280x720p 50 1280 720 74.25 37.50 50.00 1980 750 30
1920x1080p 24 1920 1080 74.25 27.00 24.00 2750 1125 30
1920x1080psF 24 1920 1080 74.25 27.00 24.00 2750 1125 30
1920x1080p 23.98 1920 1080 74.18 26.97 23.98 2750 1125 30
1920x1080psF 23.98 1920 1080 74.18 26.97 23.98 2750 1125 30
1920x1080i 60 1920 1080 74.25 33.75 30.00 2200 1125 30
1920x1080i 59.94 1920 1080 74.18 33.72 29.97 2200 1125 30
1920x1080i 50 1920 1080 74.25 28.13 25.00 2640 1125 30
1920x1035i 59.94 1920 1035 74.18 33.72 29.97 2200 1125 30
1920x1152i 50 1920 1152 74.00 31.25 25.00 2304 1250 30
720x576p 50 720 576 27.00 31.25 50.00 864 625 12
720x480p 60 720 480 27.03 31.50 60.00 858 525 12
720x480p 59.94 720 480 27.00 31.47 59.94 858 525 12
720x576i 50 720 576 13.50 15.63 25.00 864 625 6
720x480i 60 720 507 13.51 15.75 30.00 858 525 6
720x480i 59.94 720 507 13.50 15.73 29.97 858 525 6



System Name Standard Scanning Mode Sync Type Sync Width (T) Start of Active Video (T) Active Lines in Field 1 or Frame Active Lines in Field 2
1280x720p 60 HD p Tri 80 260 26 to 745
1280x720p 59.94 HD p Tri 80 260 26 to 745
1280x720p 50 HD p Tri 80 260 26 to 745
1920x1080p 24 HD p Tri 88 192 42 to 1121
1920x1080psF 24 HD psF Tri 88 192 21 to 560 584 to 1123
1920x1080p 23.98 HD p Tri 88 192 42 to 1121
1920x1080psF 23.98 HD psF Tri 88 192 21 to 560 584 to 1123
1920x1080i 60 HD i Tri 88 192 21 to 560 584 to 1123
1920x1080i 59.94 HD i Tri 88 192 21 to 560 584 to 1123
1920x1080i 50 HD i Tri 88 192 21 to 560 584 to 1123
1920x1035i 59.94 HD i Tri 88 192 41 to 557 603 to 1120
1920x1152i 50 HD i Tri 128 256 45 to 620 670 to 1245
720x576p 50 ED p Bi 63 132 45 to 620
720x480p 60 ED p Bi 63 122 43 to 525
720x480p 59.94 ED p Bi 63 122 43 to 525
720x576i 50 SD i Bi 63 132 23 to 310 336 to 623
720x480i 60 SD i Bi 63 124 21 to 263 273 to 525
720x480i 59.94 SD i Bi 63 124 21 to 263 273 to 525

The frequency in the system name refers to frame rate for progressive, or field rate for interlaced systems. There are many other official standards defined by SMPTE and ITU-R that differ in total frame size, active picture size, and frame rate.

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